Guangzhou Metro is the largest municipal construction project unprecedented in the history of Guangzhou. Through ten years exploration and practice, a configuration of line network and construction thinking method have been formed with the special characteristics of Guangzhou, which is "to have a framework first and increase service level later", "give consideration both to the improvement of traffic condition and city development". At moment, Guangzhou Metro Line 1 and the first phase of Line 2 has been completed and put into operation. The total operation length is 36.78 km with 32 stations. Line 3, Line 4 (special line to the University Town), Line 2 extension phase and intercity Line from Guangzhou to Foshan are under construction.
Metro Line 1 runs from the east to the west. The total length is 18.497km (2.048 km at grade) with 16 stations. It can transport 55,500 person-times in per peak hour per direction. It is six-car train. The max. speed is 80 km per hour and average traveling speed is 35km per hour. The min. designed headway is 2 minutes. The construction of Line 1 started in Dec. 28, 1993, and the whole line is completed and put into operation in June 28, 1999. The total project schedule is 66 months. 15 main equipment system of Line 1 are imported from Germany, the U.K., Japan and U.S. respectively. The foreign capital used is USD 0.541 billion. It has reached the world advanced level in the early 90’ and some of the equipment and technology are the first to be used in China, such as A.C. traction motor of "A" type rolling stock, open and close type environment control ventilation system, telecommunication system with OTM, Automatic Fare Collection (magnetic) system etc. Line 1 has passed the acceptance by the State successfully in March 24, 2001. It is defined finally that the total investment is RMB 12.2616 billion, and the average cost per kilometer is RMB 0.6629 billion.
The initial phase of Metro Line 2 started construction in 1999 and put into official operation in June 28, 2003. The project schedule is more than one year ahead of time and the investment is over RMB 1 billion saved than the budget. Many new technology of mass transit transportation have been integrated in Line 2. Three innovations have been realized, i.e. system innovation, management innovation and science & technology innovation. Five first have been created nationwide, that is the first to use localized "A" type rolling stock, the first to use platform screen door system, the first to use fully non touched IC card AFC system, the first to use centralized cooling system and the first to use rigid suspension overhead contact line. The National First "Top Ten Construction and Science & Technology Achievement Award" and the title of "Model Project in 2004" by the Ministry of Construction are awarded, as well as high appraisal by the leaders and specialists from the State, Provincial and the Municipal government. It is recommended to attend the evaluation for “Top Prize for Guangodong Science & Technology Progress".
Guangzhou Metro insists on "take passenger the priority and safety the first". The concept of "total life cycle cost" has been introduced, so as to decrease the operational cost and improve service facility and service quality continuously, to build carefully the well-known brand of Guangzhou Metro, to provide passengers with safe and reliable mass transit transportation service and the commitment of "safe, punctual, comfortable and fast" has been realized. Since 5 years of operation, no liability-born major or big accident in operation, no liability-born major or big equipment accident, no liability –born major or big passenger death or injury accident and no death or injury of staffs. Accumulated safe transportation of passengers is 406 million person-times, the average daily passenger flow increase from 172,000 person-times in 1999 to 410, 000 person-times in July 2004. Among them, the average daily passenger flow of Line 1 is 253,000 person-times, and the average yearly increasing rate is about 10%. In 2003, Line 1 has realized the operation revenue of RMB 206 million. The average yearly increasing rate is over 3%. It is expected that the operation income of Line 1 can be balanced with the cost of interest calculated before depreciation. Balance for the operation cash flow can be realized.
The total length of Line 3 is 35.86 km with 18 stations. It is in "Y" shape. The main line from Guangzhou Dong to Panyu Square is 28.43 km with 13 stations. The average distance between stations is 2.9 km. The branch line from Tiyuxi to Tianhe passenger transportation station is 7.43 km with 5 stations. The average distance between stations is 1.4 km. The future extension towards New Airport in the north and Guangzhou New city in the south have been reserved.
The max. speed is 120 km per hour. The traveling speed of main Line is 58.6 km per hour and branch line is 56.2 km/h. This mass transit express line can satisfy the time and space requirement of the citizens outing within half an hour in the scope of the city area. 3-car train will be adopted at the beginning, and min. headway is 120 seconds. The construction of Line 3 started in the end of 2001 and the project budget is RMB 14.996 billion. The construction is in full scale. The construction of all 37 construction sites of the main line have been started and main structures of 5 stations have been completed. Shielding method is adopted for 70% of the tunneling projects. Invite public bidding for electrical & mechanical equipment is progressing smoothly. The two most important purchasing contracts for Rolling stock and moving block signaling system have been signed. It is possible that Line 3 will be put into operation in 2006 according to the schedule under the precondition that the land acquisition and resettlement along the line will be speeded up and transferred in due time.
After the completion of Line 3, the basic framework of Guangzhou mass transit transportation network will be formed together with Line 1 and Line 2, covering the new, old city areas and developing areas. The total length is over 73 km with 50 stations. The capability to realize the scope and integrity effect of mass transit transportation will be preliminary equipped. The mobility conditions and living environment of the citizen can be improved efficiently. To provide good conditions for the comprehensive utilization of the resources of the city and to promote the economic and ecological benefit of Guangzhou.
Line 4 goes from Luogang new district to Nansha with the total length of 67 km and 22 stations, including 9 interchange stations. The average distance between stations is about 3.1 km. The construction of Line 4 will be carried out by stages. It is preliminary planned that the line from Pazhou Tower to Xinzao with 11 km will be completed in 2005 and the line from Huangzhou to Huangge with 37.6 km will be completed in 2010. The trial phase of Line 4 (University Town special line) has already started construction in Jan. 28, 2003. The pre-preparation is strengthened for matching with the construction of University Town. The prophase application for construction, invitation for public bidding and so on are carried out. "Project proposal " has already reviewed and examined by the specialists and submitted to China International Engineering Consultant Company for approval. The municipal government has already approved the overall planning of the project, and the preliminary design has been reviewed as well. The construction of the project is pushed forward according to the target for completion by the end of 2005. Linear motor technology is the first in China to be adopted in this line.
Line 5 runs from the west end of Fangcun Avenue in Fangcun District in the west, the extension towards the west of Nanhai District, Foshan is reserved, goes through Liwan District, Yuexiu District, Dongshan District and Tianhe District, finally reaches Yunpu Industrial Garden, Huangpu District, the extension towards the east of Xintan, Zenceng direction is reserved. It is in east-west direction with the total length of 41.5 km and 27 stations, including 9 interchange stations. It is able to interchange with Line Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9 respectively and there are twice interchange with Line 6. Line 5 is an important mass transit line in the west-east transportation corridor of Guangzhou and it takes a significant role in carry out the strategic principal of "priority in the north, expansion in the south, advancement in the east and connection in the west".
The total length of the line from Guangzhou to Foshan is about 34 km and the expected investment is about RMB 14.7 billion. It is planned to interchange with Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3 in Xilang, Xiaogang and Lijiao, which will not only increase the business management efficiency of Guang-Fo Line, but also raise the flexibility of the existing line network in Guangzhou. The construction of Kui Qi Lu reversing line, the test section of Guang-Fo Line has been started in Oct. 11, 2002. The preparation is carried out strenuously at moment. “Project Proposal” has examined by the specialists and submitted to China International Engineering Consultant Company for approval. The overall plan of the project has already finalized and key construction sites for construction in full scale have been listed. Overall design and invitation for public bidding for the design of each construction sites of the whole line have been carried out, and elaborated geological exploration of the whole line is executed as well. It is striving that most of the construction sites will be started by the end of this year.
Plan for Line Network
Plan for mass transit transportation has worked out simultaneously when Guangzhou is speeding up the existing construction projects. Currently, "Plan for Guangzhou Mass Transit Network" and "Construction Plan for Guangzhou Mass Transit from 2003 to 2010" have been compiled. According to the plan, the total length of 717 km mass transit network will be constructed in Guangzhou. Among them, there are 15 lines for mass transit with the total length of 610 km, Pearl River intercity mass transit line Guangzhou section with 40 km and 67km suburban line. A centripetal, but interwoven mass transit system has been formed with excellent radiation capability. By the year 2010, Guangzhou will have Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, etc., 9 lines completed and the total length will reach over 200 km.